The course is focused on origin and evolution of genomes. The lectures have broad scope, first covering origin of life and first genomes, replicators based on RNA molecules (RNA world) and relics from RNA world. In this context we deal with the phenomenon of RNA interference and describe various types of small RNA (smRNA) molecules and mechanisms of their functioning in present genomes. Then, the lectures cover structure and mechanisms of evolution of viral, prokaryotic and eukaryotic genomes with a special focus on the role of polyploidization in evolution of plants and animals. Structure and mechanisms of formation of new genes will be presented. The special attention will be given to genome dynamics and the role of various repetitive DNA sequences like mobile genetic elements (transposones) and tandem repeats. We describe origin, evolution and consequences of sexuality and structure and evolution of sex chromosomes. The structure of human genome will be presented in the light of future trends of its research and student will be faced with ethical implications of the knowledge of human genome. Presented findings will be presented in context of the history of their discoveries as well as methods used. Special lesson will be focused on modern methods and strategies in genomics.