GAL Acad. year 2021/2022 Winter semester 5 credits
This course discusses graph representations and graphs algorithms for searching (depth-first search, breadth-first search), topological sorting, graph components and strongly connected components, trees and minimal spanning trees, single-source and all-pairs shortest paths, maximal flows and minimal cuts, maximal bipartite matching, Euler graphs, and graph coloring. The principles and complexities of all presented algorithms are discussed.
Language of instruction
Course Web Pages
Subject specific learning outcomes and competences
Fundamental ability to construct an algorithm for a graph problem and to analyze its time and space complexity.
Familiarity with graphs and graph algorithms with their complexities.
Why is the course taught
First, we recall all important algorithms for systematic graph exploration including the demonstrations of algorithm correctness. Then, we proceed to more demanding algorithms for shortest path search and other advanced graph analysis. We place emphasis on the explanation of the algorithm principles and implementation discussion including the discussion of used data structures and their time/space complexities. Apart from the graph algorithms, the student improves his/her ability to formally describe an algorithm and estimate its complexity. In project, the students are usually asked to modify, implement and experiment with some chosen graph algorithm(s).
Prerequisite kwnowledge and skills
Foundations in discrete mathematics and algorithmic thinking.
- Copy of lectures.
- T.H. Cormen, C.E. Leiserson, R.L. Rivest, Introduction to Algorithms, MIT Press, 3rd Edition, 1312 p., 2009.
- T.H. Cormen, C.E. Leiserson, R.L. Rivest, Introduction to Algorithms, McGraw-Hill, 2002.
- J. Demel, Grafy, SNTL Praha, 1988.
- J. Demel, Grafy a jejich aplikace, Academia, 2002. (More about the book)
- R. Diestel, Graph Theory, Third Edition, Springer-Verlag, Heidelberg, 2000.
- J.A. McHugh, Algorithmic Graph Theory, Prentice-Hall, 1990.
- J.A. Bondy, U.S.R. Murty: Graph Theory, Graduate text in mathematics, Springer, 2008.
- J.L. Gross, J. Yellen: Graph Theory and Its Applications, Second Edition, Chapman & Hall/CRC, 2005.
- J.L. Gross, J. Yellen: Handbook of Graph Theory (Discrete Mathematics and Its Applications), CRC Press, 2003.
Syllabus of lectures
- Introduction, algorithmic complexity, basic notions and graph representations.
- Graph searching, depth-first search, breadth-first search.
- Topological sort, acyclic graphs.
- Graph components, strongly connected components, examples.
- Trees, minimal spanning trees, algorithms of Jarník and Borůvka.
- Growing a minimal spanning tree, algorithms of Kruskal and Prim.
- Single-source shortest paths, the Bellman-Ford algorithm, shortest path in DAGs.
- Dijkstra's algorithm. All-pairs shortest paths.
- Shortest paths and matrix multiplication, the Floyd-Warshall algorithm.
- Flows and cuts in networks, maximal flow, minimal cut, the Ford-Fulkerson algorithm.
- Matching in bipartite graphs, maximal matching.
- Graph coloring, Chromatic polynomial.
- Eulerian graphs and tours, Chinese postman problem, and Hamiltonian cycles.
Syllabus - others, projects and individual work of students
- Solving of selected graph problems and presentation of solutions (principle, complexity, implementation, optimization).
- Mid-term written examination (15 point)
- Evaluated project(s) (25 points)
- Final written examination (60 points)
- The minimal number of points which can be obtained from the final exam is 25. Otherwise, no points will be assigned to a student.
In case of illness or another serious obstacle, the student should inform the faculty about that and subsequently provide the evidence of such an obstacle. Then, it can be taken into account within evaluation:
- The student can ask the responsible teacher to extend the time for the project assignment.
- If a student cannot attend the mid-term exam, (s)he can ask to derive points from the evaluation of his/her first attempt of the final exam.
Course inclusion in study plans
- Programme IT-MSC-2, field MBI, MBS, MGM, MIN, MIS, MPV, any year of study, Elective
- Programme IT-MSC-2, field MMM, any year of study, Compulsory
- Programme IT-MSC-2, field MSK, 1st year of study, Compulsory
- Programme MITAI, specialisation NADE, NBIO, NCPS, NEMB, NGRI, NHPC, NIDE, NISD, NISY, NMAL, NSEC, NSEN, NSPE, NVER, NVIZ, any year of study, Elective
- Programme MITAI, specialisation NMAT, NNET, any year of study, Compulsory