Faculty of Information Technology, BUT

Course details

Formal Languages and Compilers

IFJ Acad. year 2004/2005 Winter semester 5 credits

Current academic year

This course discusses formal languages and their models. Based on these models, it explains the construction of compilers. The lectures are organized as follows: (I) Basic notions: formal languages and their models, grammars, automata; compilers. (II) Regular languages and lexical analysis: regular languages and expressions, finite automata and transducers, lexical analyzer; Lex; symbol table. (III) Context-free languages and syntax analysis: context-free grammars, pushdown automata and transducers, deterministic top-down syntax analysis (recursive descent), the essence of deterministic bottom-up syntax analysis; Yacc. (IV) Semantic analysis and code generation: intermediate code generation, optimization, code generation.


Language of instruction

Czech, English


Credit+Examination (written)

Time span

39 hrs lectures, 13 hrs projects

Assessment points

55 exam, 20 half-term test, 25 projects




Bidlo Radek, Ing. (DIFS FIT BUT)
Blatný Petr, Ing. (DIFS FIT BUT)
Kaláb Petr, Ing. (DIFS FIT BUT)
Kolář Dušan, doc. Dr. Ing. (DIFS FIT BUT)
Kopeček Tomáš, Ing. (DIFS FIT BUT)
Křivka Zbyněk, Ing., Ph.D. (DIFS FIT BUT)
Lorenc Luboš, Ing., Ph.D. (DIFS FIT BUT)
Lukáš Roman, Ing., Ph.D. (DIFS FIT BUT)
Meduna Alexander, prof. RNDr., CSc. (DIFS FIT BUT)
Škrkal Oto, Ing. (DIFS FIT BUT)
Švec Martin, Ing. (DIFS FIT BUT)
Vítek Martin, Ing., Ph.D. (DIFS FIT BUT)

Subject specific learning outcomes and competences

Fundamental familiarity with the theory of formal languages. Ability of a compiler construction.

Learning objectives

Familiarity with formal languages and their models. Grasp of compiler construction.

Study literature

  • copy of lectures
  • Meduna, A.: Automata and Languages. London, Springer, 2000.

Fundamental literature

  • Parsons, T. W.: Introduction to Compiler Construction. Freeman, New York, 1992.

Syllabus of lectures

  • Formal languages: introduction. 
  • Translation of languages and the structure of a compiler.
  • Regular languages and their models: regular expressions and finite automata.
  • Lexical analysis: lexical analyzer; Lex; symbol table.
  • Context-free languages and their models: context-free grammars and pushdown automata.
  • Syntax analysis: deterministic syntax analysis, FIRST and FOLLOW, LL and LR grammars.
  • Deterministic top-down syntax analysis: recursive descent, predictive analysis.
  • Deterministic bottom-up syntax analysis: simple precedence analysis, LR analysis; Yacc.
  • Semantic analysis and intermediate form generation.
  • Optimazation.
  • Code generation.
  • Turing machine. Computability and decidability: basic ideas.
  • Chomsky hierarchy and the corresponding models
  • Remarks and summary. Preliminary discussion of the VYP contents.

Exam prerequisites

Obtaining five or more points for the programming part of the project.
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