Course details

Formal Languages and Compilers

IFJe Acad. year 2012/2013 Winter semester 5 credits

Current academic year

This course discusses formal languages and their models. Based on these models, it explains the construction of compilers. The lectures are organized as follows: (I) Basic notions: formal languages and their models, grammars, automata; compilers. (II) Regular languages and lexical analysis: regular languages and expressions, finite automata and transducers, lexical analyzer; Lex; symbol table. (III) Context-free languages and syntax analysis: context-free grammars, pushdown automata and transducers, deterministic top-down syntax analysis (recursive descent), the essence of deterministic bottom-up syntax analysis; Yacc. (IV) Semantic analysis and code generation: intermediate code generation, optimization, code generation.


Language of instruction



Credit+Examination (written)

Time span

26 hrs lectures, 13 hrs exercises, 13 hrs projects

Assessment points

55 exam, 20 mid-term test, 25 projects



Vrábel Lukáš, Ing. (DIFS FIT BUT)
Zemek Petr, Ing. (DIFS FIT BUT)


Vrábel Lukáš, Ing. (DIFS FIT BUT)
Zemek Petr, Ing. (DIFS FIT BUT)

Subject specific learning outcomes and competences

Fundamental familiarity with the theory of formal languages. Ability of a compiler construction.

Learning objectives

Familiarity with formal languages and their models. Grasp of compiler construction.

Prerequisite kwnowledge and skills

Discrete mathematics.

Study literature

  • Copy of lectures.
  • Meduna, A.: Automata and Languages. London, Springer, 2000.

Fundamental literature

  • Parsons, T. W.: Introduction to Compiler Construction. Freeman, New York, 1992.

Syllabus of lectures

  • Formal languages.
  • Translation of languages and the structure of a compiler.
  • Regular languages and their models: regular expressions and finite automata.
  • Lexical analysis: lexical analyzer; Lex; symbol table.
  • Context-free languages and their models: context-free grammars and pushdown automata.
  • Syntax analysis: deterministic syntax analysis, FIRST and FOLLOW, LL and LR grammars.
  • Deterministic top-down syntax analysis: recursive descent.
  • Deterministic bottom-up syntax analysis: simple precedence analysis, LR analysis; Yacc.
  • Semantic analysis and intermediate form generation.
  • Optimazation.
  • Code generation.
  • Chomsky hierarchy and the corresponding models.
  • Remarks and summary. Preliminary discussion of the VYP contents.

Controlled instruction

Midterm. Checking the project solution by the teacher.

Exam prerequisites

To be allowed to take the final exam, the student has to obtain 20 points during the semester; out of these 20 points, at least five points have to be obtained from the project.

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