Publication Details

Transurethral ultrasound therapy of the prostate in the presence of calcifications: A simulation study

SUOMI Visa, TREEBY Bradley E., JAROŠ Jiří, MAKELA Pietari, ANTTINEN Mikael, SAUNAVAARA Jani, SAINIO Teija, KIVINIEMI Aida and BLANCO Roberto. Transurethral ultrasound therapy of the prostate in the presence of calcifications: a simulation study. Medical Physics, vol. 45, no. 11, 2018, pp. 4793-4805. ISSN 0094-2405. Available from:
Czech title
Transrektální ultrazvuková terapie prostaty za přítomnosti kalcifikací: simulační studie
journal article
Suomi Visa (TYKS)
Treeby Bradley E. (UCL)
Jaroš Jiří, doc. Ing., Ph.D. (DCSY FIT BUT)
Makela Pietari (TYKS)
Anttinen Mikael (TYKS)
Saunavaara Jani (TYKS)
Sainio Teija (TYKS)
Kiviniemi Aida (TYKS)
Blanco Roberto (TYKS)

therapeutic ultrasound, prostate cancer, calcification, heating, efficacy


Transurethral ultrasound therapy is an investigational treatment modality which could potentially be used for the localised treatment of prostate cancer. One of the limiting factors of this application are the prostatic calcifications which attenuate and reflect ultrasound, and thus, reduce the efficacy of the heating. The aim of this study is find out how prostatic calcifications affect the therapeutic efficacy and what is the best sonication strategy to overcome these limitations.

The presence of calcifications in front of the ultrasound field was found to increase the peak pressure by 100% on average while the maximum temperature only rose by 9% during a 20-second sonication. Losses in ultrasound energy were caused due to relative large acoustic impedance mismatch between the prostate tissue and the calcifications (1.63 vs. 3.20 MRayl) and high attenuation coefficient (0.78 vs. 2.64 dB/MHz^1.1/cm), which together left untreated tissue regions behind the calcifications. In addition, elevated temperatures were seen in the region between the transducer and the calcifications. Lower sonication frequencies (1-4 MHz) were not able to penetrate through the calcifications effectively, but longer sonication durations (20-60 s) with selected transducer elements were effective in treating the tissue regions behind the calcifications.

Medical Physics, vol. 45, no. 11, ISSN 0094-2405
American Association of Physicists in Medicine
EID Scopus
   author = "Visa Suomi and E. Bradley Treeby and Ji\v{r}\'{i} Jaro\v{s} and Pietari Makela and Mikael Anttinen and Jani Saunavaara and Teija Sainio and Aida Kiviniemi and Roberto Blanco",
   title = "Transurethral ultrasound therapy of the prostate in the presence of calcifications: A simulation study",
   pages = "4793--4805",
   journal = "Medical Physics",
   volume = 45,
   number = 11,
   year = 2018,
   ISSN = "0094-2405",
   doi = "10.1002/mp.13183",
   language = "english",
   url = ""
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