Publication Details

EnMS: Early non-Maxima Suppression

HEROUT Adam, HRADIŠ Michal and ZEMČÍK Pavel. EnMS: Early non-Maxima Suppression. Pattern Analysis and Applications, vol. 2012, no. 2, pp. 121-132. ISSN 1433-7541.
Czech title
Časné potlačení nemaximálních odezev
journal article

Non-Maxima Suppression, Object Detection, WaldBoost, Sequential Probability Ratio Test


Detection of objects in images using statistical classifiers is a well studied and documented technique.  Different applications of such detectors often require selection of the image position with the highest response of the detector -- they perform non-maxima suppression.  This article introduces the concept of Early non-Maxima Suppression, which aims to reduce necessary computations by making the non-Maxima Suppression decision early based on incomplete information provided by a partially evaluated classifier. We show that the error of one such speculative decision with respect to a decision made based on response of the complete classifier can be estimated by collecting statistics on unlabeled data.  The article then considers a sequential strategy of multiple early non-Maxima suppression tests which follows the structure of soft-cascade detectors commonly used for object detection. We also show that an optimal (fastest for requested error rate) suppression strategy can be created by a novel variant of Wald's sequential probability ratio test (SPRT) which we call the Conditioned SPRT, CSPRT.  Experimental results show that the Early non-Maxima Suppression significantly reduces amount of computation in the case of object localization while the error rates are limited to low predefined values. The proposed approach notably outperforms the state-of-the-art detectors based on WaldBoost. The potential applications of the early non-Maxima suppression approach are not limited to object localization and could be applied wherever the goal is to find the strongest response of a classifier among a set of classified samples.

Pattern Analysis and Applications, vol. 2012, no. 2, ISSN 1433-7541
Springer Verlag
   author = "Adam Herout and Michal Hradi\v{s} and Pavel Zem\v{c}\'{i}k",
   title = "EnMS: Early non-Maxima Suppression",
   pages = "121--132",
   journal = "Pattern Analysis and Applications",
   volume = 2012,
   number = 2,
   year = 2012,
   ISSN = "1433-7541",
   language = "english",
   url = ""
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