Thesis Details

Digitální steganografie pro spustitelné soubory

Bachelor's Thesis Student: Bever Ľuboš Academic Year: 2021/2022 Supervisor: Strnadel Josef, Ing., Ph.D.
English title
Digital Steganography for Executables

Steganography for executable files is the least common steganography. Research in this area has subsided after several, not many, attempts to implement it. The aim of this work is the implementation of existing methods and its modification proposal. Extensible software that has been created, can be also used to implement other methods. The implemented methods were properly tested,  evaluated and compared. The comparison results show, that the used instruction substitution method, roughly corresponds to its reference value 1/110, however the results are highly dependent on the input binaries. The proposed extension of this method averages a data rate of 1/84, which is only 1.5 times less than the value obtained from another existing implementation in which specialized software was used to search for equivalence classes. The maximum data rate obtained from test programs is 1/38.


digital steganography, executable file, ELF format, PE format, instruction set x86-64, AMD64, Intel 64, instruction substitution, NOP instructions, information embedding, information extraction

Degree Programme
defended, grade B
14 June 2022
Ryšavý Ondřej, doc. Ing., Ph.D. (DIFS FIT BUT), předseda
Malinka Kamil, Mgr., Ph.D. (DITS FIT BUT), člen
Milet Tomáš, Ing., Ph.D. (DCGM FIT BUT), člen
Strnadel Josef, Ing., Ph.D. (DCSY FIT BUT), člen
BEVER, Ľuboš. Digitální steganografie pro spustitelné soubory. Brno, 2022. Bachelor's Thesis. Brno University of Technology, Faculty of Information Technology. 2022-06-14. Supervised by Strnadel Josef. Available from:
    author = "\'{L}ubo\v{s} Bever",
    type = "Bachelor's thesis",
    title = "Digit\'{a}ln\'{i} steganografie pro spustiteln\'{e} soubory",
    school = "Brno University of Technology, Faculty of Information Technology",
    year = 2022,
    location = "Brno, CZ",
    language = "czech",
    url = ""
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